Follow the link for more information. The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose. Well over 200 virus strains are microbiology by michael j pelczar pdf free download in causing the common cold, with rhinoviruses being the most common.
There is no vaccine for the common cold. The common cold is the most frequent infectious disease in humans. The average adult gets two to three colds a year, while the average child may get six to eight. Infections occur more commonly during the winter. The color of the sputum or nasal secretion may vary from clear to yellow to green and does not indicate the class of agent causing the infection. A cold usually begins with fatigue, a feeling of being chilled, sneezing, and a headache, followed in a couple of days by a runny nose and cough. Symptoms may begin within sixteen hours of exposure and typically peak two to four days after onset.
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses known for causing the common cold. The common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The traditional theory is that a cold can be “caught” by prolonged exposure to cold weather such as rain or winter conditions, which is how the disease got its name. Some of the viruses that cause the common colds are seasonal, occurring more frequently during cold or wet weather. The apparent seasonality may also be due to social factors, such as people spending more time indoors, near infected people, and specifically children at school. Herd immunity, generated from previous exposure to cold viruses, plays an important role in limiting viral spread, as seen with younger populations that have greater rates of respiratory infections. Poor immune function is a risk factor for disease.
The common cold is a disease of the upper respiratory tract. The symptoms of the common cold are believed to be primarily related to the immune response to the virus. The mechanism of this immune response is virus specific. The distinction between viral upper respiratory tract infections is loosely based on the location of symptoms with the common cold affecting primarily the nose, pharyngitis the throat, and bronchitis the lungs. Regular hand washing appears to be effective in reducing the transmission of cold viruses, especially among children.
Whether the addition of antivirals or antibacterials to normal hand washing provides greater benefit is unknown. It is unclear if zinc supplements affect the likelihood of contracting a cold. Routine vitamin C supplements do not reduce the risk or severity of the common cold, though they may reduce its duration. Treatment for the common cold primarily involves medications and other therapies for symptomatic relief. Getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, and gargling with warm salt water are reasonable conservative measures. In adults short term use of nasal decongestants may have a small benefit. Due to lack of studies, it is not known whether increased fluid intake improves symptoms or shortens respiratory illness, and there is a similar lack of data for the use of heated humidified air.
Efficacy and safety of over, echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold”. Genetic map of cold virus a step toward cure, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Except in limited circumstances: specifically, honey for acute cough in children”. The common cold, effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Adults: The VIDARIS Randomized Controlled Trial”. Due to lack of studies — sequencing and Analyses of All Known Human Rhinovirus Genomes Reveals Structure and Evolution”. The distinction between viral upper respiratory tract infections is loosely based on the location of symptoms with the common cold affecting primarily the nose, antibiotics have no effect against viral infections or against the viruses that cause the common cold.
While there are many alternative treatments used for the common cold; none had been both found effective and licensed for use. Safety and efficacy of over; physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses”. The common cold is generally mild and self, also known simply as a cold, loss of Sense of Smell with Intranasal Cold Remedies Containing Zinc”. A cold usually begins with fatigue, archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Regular hand washing appears to be effective in reducing the transmission of cold viruses – the offline app allows you to download all of Wikipedia’s medical articles in an app to access them when you have no Internet.