Discrimination based on skin color, also known as colorism or shadeism, is a form of prejudice or discrimination in which people are treated differently based on the social meanings attached to skin color. Colorism, a term coined by Alice Walker in 1982, is not a synonym for racism. Research katherine spriggs on buying local pdf found extensive evidence of discrimination based on skin color in criminal justice, business, labor market, housing, health care, media and politics in the United States and Europe. Lighter skin tones are seen as preferable in many countries in Africa and Asia.
Many studies report lower private sector earnings for racial minorities, although it is often difficult to determine the extent to which this is the result of racial discrimination. Several meta-analyses find extensive evidence of ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring in the North-American and European labor markets. In the 20th century there has been a shift towards a preference for darker, tanned skin in white communities. The beginning of this change has been attributed to Frenchwoman Coco Chanel making tanned skin seem fashionable, luxurious and healthy in Paris in the 1920s.
Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This section’s factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. The neutrality of this section is disputed. In addition to rivalries among descendants of African Americans, the Americans held themselves above the native Africans in Liberia. Thus, descendants of Americans held and kept power out of proportion to their representation in the population of the entire country, so there was a larger issue than color at work. Colored people consist of three mixed race populations in South Africa who were given more social privilege than other, unmixed, indigenous African groups.
The history of skin whitening in East Asia dates far back to ancient times. In the ancient dynastic eras, to be light in an environment in which the sun was harsh implied wealth and nobility because those individuals were able to remain indoors while servants had to labor outside. Globalized East Asia still retains these biases, but they are compounded by the influence of Westernized beauty ideals and media that equates whiteness with modern and urban wealth and success. The legacies of European colonialism in India and Pakistan also influence the modern relations between light skin and power. This however was later understood to not be true, as Kali is actually traditionally viewed positively, seen as a symbol of sexuality, motherly love, violence, and power.
Colorism in India has also been fueled due to the events under British colonial rule, where British officials consistently demeaned dark-skinned Indians and favored light-skinned Indians for jobs over dark-skinned Indians. For example, in the state of Maharashta a group of young tribal girls trained to be flight crew through a government scholarship program that aimed to empower women. The majority of girls were denied employment due to their darker skin-tone. A few of those women landed jobs, but only as out-of-sight ground crew.